University of Connecticut University of UC Title Fallback Connecticut

Hierarchy of Taxa


I suspect you know what this is (a charcoal kiln), but can you classify it?

Different taxonomic levels for the Stone Domain are indicated by color-coding and indentations, as shown below:






The  taxa for the Stone Domain are indicated below by the color-coding and indentations shown above.  For photos, go to the Stone Domain



 Family: Freestanding

 Type: Stone Band   (Informally, wavy band, beaded band, zig-zag band, etc. )

 Type: Single Wall

 Subtype: Normal

 Subtype: Panel

 Variant: Open

 Variant: Closed

 Subtype: Abutting

 Variant: Boulder

 Variant: Slab

 Variant: Pale

(informal subtypes, cordwood wall, lace wall, cannonball wall, etc. )

Type: Double Wall

 Subtype: Normal

 Subtype: Hybrid

 Subtype: Ornate

 Variant: Capped

 Variant: Quarrystone

 Variant: Copestone

 (Informal variants, estate wall, guard wall, dragon-tooth wall, turreted wall, etc.)

Type: Broad Wall

 Subtype: Disposal Wall

 Subtype: Once-again Wall

 Subtype: Walking Wall

 Type: Abutting Wall

 Subtype: Boulder

 Subtype: Slab

 Subtype: Pale

 Family: Flanking Wall

 Type: Retaining Wall

 Subtype: On Grade

 Variant: Cut

 Variant: Fill

 Variant: Cut and Fill

 Subtype: Partially on Grade

 Variant: False Retaining

 Variant: Built

 Variant: Well Guard

 Type: Armoring Wall

 Subtype: Placed (rip-rap)

 Subtype: Built (facing)

 (Informal subtypes: sea wall, streambank wall, canal lining, etc.)

Family: Raising Wall

Type: Raised Land

 (informal types: fill, causeway, groin, jety, breakwater, garden beds)

Type: Bridging Wall

 Subtype: Culvert

 Subtype: Bridge

 Family: Impoundment Wall

 Type: Dam

 Type: Dike

Type: Pool

(informal types: cisterns, tanks, pumping pools,etc.)

 Family: Foundation Wall

Type: Below Grade

Type: Above Grade

(Informal types, cellar holes, barn foundations, outbuilding foundations.)

Family: Confinement Wall

 Type: Unroofed

 Subtype: Square

 (informal subtypes: pounds, pens, coralls, folds)

 Subtype: Ring

 Type: Roofed

 (Informal types: chambers, root cellars, kivas)



 Family: Standing Stones

 Type: Unmodified

 Type: Modified

 Family: Non-standing Stones

Type: Erratic (culturally significant, but not moved)

Type:  Placed Boulder (not an erratic)

Type:  Placed Other (lintel, sill, slab, etc.)



 Family: Stone Surfaces

 Type: Stone Pavements

 Subtype: Tiled Pavement

 Subtype: Cobblestone pavement

 (Informal subtypes: stone floor, stone path, stone pavement, cobblestone, etc.)

 Type: Stone Veneers

 (Informal subtypes: stone shields)

Family: Stone Uprights

 Type: Stone Monuments

 Subtype: Stacks

 Subtype: Monuments

 Subtype: Cairns

 Subtype: Statues

 Subtype: Boxes

 Type: Stone Pillars  (Informal types: trestles, foundation support columns, etc.)

 Type: Stone Chimney

 Type: Stone Spans   (Informal types, benches, arches, lintels, doors, etc.)

Family: Stone Piles

 Type: Freestanding

 Subtype: Mound   (Informal mounds: Stone Pile and Burial Mound)

 Subtype: Infill

 Subtype: Ring   (Informal rings: Tree Rings, Fire rings, and Stone rosette)

 Type: Attached

 Subtype: Corner PIle

 Subtype: Flanking Pile

 Subtype: Topping Pile

 Type: Surmounting



 Family: Solid Rows   

(Informal types: garden border, landscape border, etc.)

Family: Spaced Rows

 Type: Dotted Rows 

(Informal subtypes, cobble dots, rock dots, boulder fence)

 Type: Dashed Rows


Barn ramp in Woodstock CT qualifies as a stone wall. It’s an above grade (Subtype) retaining (Type) freestanding (Family) wall (Class).